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Is large enough for a worker to enter it;
Has limited means of entry or exit; and
Is not designed for continuous occupancy.
• Having a competent person evaluate the work site for the presence of confined spaces, including permit-
required confined spaces.
• Once the space is classified as a permit-required confined space, identifying the means of entry and exit,
proper ventilation methods, and elimination or control of all potential hazards in the space.
• Ensuring that the air in a confined space is tested, before workers enter, for oxygen levels, flammable and
toxic substances, and stratified atmospheres.
• If a permit is required for the space, removing or controlling hazards in the space and determining rescue
procedures and necessary equipment.
• If the air in a space is not safe for workers, ventilating or using whatever controls or protections are necessary so that employees can safely work in the space.
Opening or closing valves during renovation work.
Installing or upgrading pump equipment, cables, or junction boxes.
Installing or upgrading a manhole.
Altering or upgrading sewer lines.
Making nonstructural upgrades to joints, pipes, or manholes.
Installing new or upgraded pump equipment, cables, wires, or junction boxes.
Atmospheric hazards (low oxygen, toxic or flammable gases).
Chemicals in piping and from roadway runoff (may harm lungs, skin, or eyes).
Engulfment and drowning.
Electrocution (e.g., using electrical equipment in wet working conditions).
Slips, trips, and falls.
High noise levels, low visibility, limits to communication, and long distances to exits.
Atmospheric hazards (e.g., flammable vapors, low oxygen levels, heat, humidity)
Electrocution (e.g., using electrical equipment in wet conditions, unprotected energized wires)
Entanglement due to configuration of space
Atmospheric hazards (e.g., poor ventilation)
Mechanical hazards (e.g., attic ventilators, whole house fans)
Electrical hazards (e.g., damaged or frayed wires, open electrical boxes)
Slip, trip and fall hazards